of The Luminous Clarity of the Universe
A Clear Exposition of the Primordially Pure Trechöd
Given on July 15, 2023 at Merigar West
Good day to everybody present here and also online. I’m very happy that you are participating in this short introduction. First of all I want to thank those who organized this event, mainly Giovanni Totino from Shang Shung Publications and the Merigar Gakyil.
Today we are presenting this very important book that Rinpoche wrote many years ago. Firstly, I just want to say briefly how, since the beginning of the Dzogchen Community, Rinpoche always stated the importance of translating Tibetan texts. In 1975-76 when we started the Community, many of us were young and some of us started to follow Rinpoche’s Tibetan lessons at the University of Naples. At that time, Rinpoche had an idea and created this drajyor or phonetic system in order to make it easier to translate Tibetan texts. Why? Because the purpose of drajyor is not only just to help us pronounce in a correct way. When you read the drajyor system, there are phrases or sentences with particles, and so on, which are not evident in the Tibetan script, because the Tibetan script is just syllables one after the other, with no division. In the beginning, Rinpoche prepared three, four, five texts in this way, using this drajyor system and then he asked students to take out the words from the text and then Rinpoche would put the meaning, making a kind of dictionary. We still have some of these texts in the library. However, it didn’t really work well.
In the first years of the Dzogchen community the main translators were Giacomella Orofino and Enrico Del’Angelo because they were the best students at the university. I was not a very good student because at that time I wanted to play music and do these kinds of things.
The first translations that we had appeared during the first International Conference on Tibetan medicine in 1983. They were also the first books published by Shang Shung Edizioni at that time. Since then, we have continued to put a lot of effort into this work. I remember one time when Rinpoche came from Formia, where he was living at the time, and he brought a million lire with him. He divided it between four people: Iacobella, Enrico, Shakya Dorje who is a Canadian Tibetan doctor and translator, and myself. He said to us, “Now, you will work here every day for one week, and when I come back, we will review the translation and publish it”.
That first book that Rinpoche asked us to translate was published in 2022, almost 40 years later, as “The Necklace of Jewels”. After that, we translated many important books. Rinpoche always took a lot of care collecting money to pay the translators until 2001-2002. This is to show you how important Rinpoche considered this work of translation.
Then, some years later, Oliver Leick took responsibility for this project and founded the Ka-ter project for working for me, with Elio Guarisco and Jim Valby, and Fabian Sanders sometimes. Since that time, we have continued in this way. So, I really want to thank Oliver Leick because I think without him it would not have been easy for us to continue this job so we should be grateful to him.
This Tregchöd book is one of the first books that Rinpoche wrote. How do we know this? First of all, I remember we had this poti, or the Tibetan version of this book, in the Merigar library from the beginning of Merigar. But even before that, this was one of the books that Rinpoche transcribed in the drajyor system. Unfortunately now it seems to have disappeared because nobody has it anywhere. However, I and also other people have one page of it for the Song of the Vajra, Emakirikiri, because at the retreat in Prata in 1977, when Rinpoche taught the Song of the Vajra for the first time, he gave us this one sheet in the drajyor system with some Longchenpa quotations and the Emakirikiri for us to learn how to sing.
Also if we read Rinpoche’s biographical notes, it says that he finished this book more or less at the end of the 60s. Regarding the Dzogchen teaching, this tregchöd book and the thögal book were the first two main works that Rinpoche wrote. The thögal book was also a large book in poti or Tibetan style. We still have this book although it has not been translated so far and it is not the same as that which was published in this longsal commentary series. It’s a different text.
Then the way that Rinpoche wrote this tregchöd book at the beginning was a kind of Tibetan style of writing. Tibetan style means that in a traditional way, if you quote some passages or paraphrase, you don’t say exactly which book, which page number and line number it comes from. There was not this custom in Tibet. Maybe one of the reasons was that copy machines didn’t exist in Tibet; they had to copy manuscripts. Very often, each lama would write his own text or commentary on the basis of other existing, more ancient texts. Because of this, we have two versions of the tregchöd book, and the original version corresponds to this Tibetan book. Then the original version was put into a computer file around 1999. Some years later, since Rinpoche had received this longsal terma on this trëgchod upadesha, he decided to combine these original texts that he had written with the longsal texts. This is the version that we have published now, the second one.
There are also some differences comparing it to the first version. There are different explanations and so on. The book was translated first of all by Jim Valby, who was sponsored by a private member of the Dzogchen community to do this work. After that Elio Guarisco worked on it for some years and we worked together for many hours. But in the end, I was still not very satisfied with the output. While Elio was still alive I started to work on it again from the beginning and I worked for some years. Usually when I translate, I don’t only translate the words, what is written there, but I try to trace the sources of the different explanations. In this case, there were many passages I couldn’t understand which came from the source of this explanation. So then I had to find all the sources in, for example, Longchenpa’s works and Jigme Lingpa’s works and so on.
Then, unfortunately, Rinpoche passed away and I still had not finished this work. However, fortunately, I had the help of an important Tibetan lama, Alak Zenkar Rinpoche and other Tibetan lamas who know about the teaching. So I tried to do my best as much as possible. But of course this book is very vast, like an encyclopedia for Dzogchen upadesha teaching.
So there are two ways to understand tregchöd. When we say tregchöd in the sense of practice, it means that when the teacher introduces this real state of the individual, the nature of mind or the real nature of consciousness, when you first have that kind of experience like a flash, then you try to continue that kind of experience of knowledge. Continuing in that state is called tregchöd. Rinpoche always gave the example that tregchöd means relaxing by itself or loosening any tension. It means that when we remain in that state, all our tensions, all our thoughts, problems, and confusion dissolve by themselves. This is due to what we call the principle of self-liberation. In this sense, these three series of Dzogchen – semde, longde, upadesha – all introduce and teach us how to continue in that state. However, the word tregchöd only exists in the Dzogchen upadesha series. This is one meaning of this word.
Then in the context of the Dzogchen upadesha, there are two main teachings or methods: one is called tregchöd, the other is thögal. How are these two principles presented in the Dzogchen upadesha teaching? In Dzogchen, when we introduce the base, meaning the real original condition, we introduce these two principles called kadag and lhundrub. Kadag means pure from the beginning. It is not something that we can limit in time. It is not something that we can judge in terms of something that was born in the beginning, continued and then disappeared in the end. In general, in Buddhist teaching we have the principle of shunyata, or emptiness. In the Mahayana sutras, shunyata does not mean the absence of something. If we consider it like absence then we fall into the extreme view that nothing exists. But if we consider it like the nature of primordial substance, then we fall into the other extreme, that it is something existing permanently, as opposed to something that does not exist. This explanation is like the Madhyamika system.
In Dzogchen we cannot just limit it to this Madhyamika principle. When we say kadag or primordial purity then it corresponds to its meaning which is beyond concepts. This is how the teacher introduces this principle. When we search for our thoughts, for our mind, it is impossible to discover its origin or source. We say that this essence is empty and corresponds to the principle of kadag.
Then we have the principle of lhundrub. In general lhundrub means natural quality, spontaneous. It means that this nature, this empty essence or shunyata or primordial purity manifests as clarity of our consciousness, of our mind, and our senses. When we search for the source of our thoughts and we can’t find anything, then we discover that emptiness. Even when we think that, that thought itself is already clarity, it’s manifesting something. We cannot separate this essence of emptiness from this nature of clarity. But not only, we can have the recognition of this clarity.
Clarity is also the source of what we call primordial potentiality or primordial energy. When we go to that level, we have to start from what we call the ‘five lights’ or the essence of the five elements. Then from the essence of the five elements, gradually there is a progression or regression into material form. Our consciousness is associated with that primordial energy and through the working of our minds and so on we produce what we call karma, that is cause and effect, and then karma produces what is called karmic vision. Karmic vision is always based on this primordial potentiality of five lights. These aspects are mainly related to this lhundrub aspect.
Therefore, in the Dzogchen upadesha first we have tregchöd, which firstly introduces that empty essence. The way of continuing the practice is mostly dealing with our mind. In general, in the tregchöd upadesha, at the beginning we have preliminary practices. Why? Because we need to distinguish between the mind and the nature of the mind. This is not a philosophical or theoretical distinction. Of course, in the beginning we also need intellectual understanding because we need to know what we should apply. But then through methods of practice, like important upadeshas of great teachers from the past, then we have the possibility, through transmission, to have the recognition of the real nature of our mind.
We consider that the nature of our mind is like the real source of our mind and of our thoughts and we try to find it. In the beginning, when we receive oral introduction, the teacher explains that this is the mind and that is the nature of the mind. Then when we are introduced to that nature of our mind, experientially, and we have that recognition of the nature of our mind, we call this the state of rigpa. Rigpa means to know or to see. Then tregchöd leads to continuation of this state of rigpa.
In general we say kadag tregchöd, and lhundrub thögal, we have this distinction because tregchöd works more with the aspect of kadag, while thögal works with the aspect of lhundrub. So thögal means the basis of this tregchöd state in which we have the possibility of integrating the subject or individual with outer vision, because inner subject and outer object have the same root or source that we call thugje, or primordial potentiality. This way of manifesting energy, that we call dang, tsal, rolpa, everything has the same source, the same nature and thögal has a specific method for achieving that integration. At the end, the realization of this rainbow body means that this material body remains in its subtle energy of the five elements. I think you already know all these things.
This book, “The Luminous Clarity of the Universe”, is structured in a traditional way coming from the tantras of the Dzogchen upadesha, which is mostly concerned with the gompa aspect of application, or meditation. In general, when we define Dzogchen teaching, it is composed of what we call the base, the path, and the fruit, or result. We have already explained the base: the teacher introduces the real nature of the individual with its two aspects of kadag and lhundrub. Then there is the view or how we apply the path, and then conduct. When we talk about the view it means that, through our experience, we understand our real nature. Application refers to all the existing methods in order first to discover, then to continue and to progress in that state. Conduct deals with how to fill the gap between sitting sessions of contemplation and daily life. When we say fruit or result it means what we can achieve or realize through this path. So this book is divided into these three aspects of the view, meditation and conduct.
The way that the view is presented does not really come from the Dzogchen upadesha but mostly quotes from Longchenpa’s Precious Ship, which is instructions on the practices in the Kunjed Gyalpo tantra and explains the real nature of phenomena and the real nature of mind. Then in the section on meditation or application, the book starts to introduce the Dzogchen upadesha tantras. In the main tantra of the upadesha, the Dra Thal-gyur tantra, which covers many subjects, there are many secondary tantras that deal with specific aspects, such as the famous Union of Sun and Moon, Nyida kha gyor, which mainly deals with the bardo.
In some of these Dzogchen upadesha tantras meditation is explained in three ways. Firstly it’s explained that we have the semdzin for devas and human beings. The semdzin are quite popular in our Dzogchen community and we use them like a kind of preliminary practice. Usually we have rushen and semdzin and we apply the semdzin mostly for distinguishing between mind and nature of mind. But here it explains that it is a lower stage of practice, a basic practice for focusing our mind because semdzin means holding or focusing on something. We know that there are three series of semdzin and here they are explained mostly according to Longchenpa’s explanation.
Then the second stage of meditation is called the samten of the Mahayana, or samten of Bodhisattvas. Samten is a term that is a little difficult to translate because in Tibetan literature it can have different meanings. In Mahayana, in general, when we say samten it corresponds to dhyana in Sanskrit, meaning meditation, state of meditation. In general, we consider dhyana to be a state in which even though you are not focused on something specifically, your mind is not disturbed by thoughts. That is the meaning of the word in the Mahayana tradition, and this word is the same as Chan in Chinese and Zen in Japanese. In this case, samten is like meditation. But it is not meditation like when we are applying something specific with concentration, and so on. It has a general meaning, but does not always correspond because in this chapter, we have explanations of two kinds of samten according to these upadesha teachings.
First of all there is this natural or spontaneous samten. It is an interesting explanation because it says that there is a state of samten or meditation that arises spontaneously and can arise in all beings. How does it arise? The book gives some examples. If an archer wants to shoot an arrow, he concentrates one pointedly on a target. This means having a very strong focus and through that we can experience a natural state of samten which is beyond concepts. There is also the example of the state of a small child who has no concepts when looking at something. This is to explain how every being has the potentiality or possibility to have that experience. But, of course, if this has not been introduced or pointed out by the teacher, then it remains only a kind of experience.
Then we have the second type of samten according to this upadesha tantra. It is called the samten that relies on an object of visualization. Visualization, or this Tibetan term migpa, is also not very easy to translate. In general, in Buddhist philosophy, migpa is used for example in the Sautrantika tradition when they say, “When you perceive an object, do you see it as it really is or not?” This is a point of discussion between these two Hinayana schools, Vaibhashika and the Sautrantika. The Vaibhashika say, “Yes, we perceive what really exists outside.” But the Sautrantika say, “No, we don’t perceive it as it really is. We perceive the mental image of that object.” That mental image is what is called migpa and in this case it means this method of practice that involves concepts of the mind. It is not a supreme method, like tregchöd, but it leads to the state of tregchöd. In Dzogchen we call it a secondary practice and it is mostly dealing with removing or eliminating attachment.
Usually there are four kinds of attachment: attachment to food, to clothing, to dreams, and to karmic traces. This is how the Dzogchen upadesha explains it and says that practitioners should become free of these four, so we have these different methods. To eliminate attachment to food, we have chülen, which means absorbing the essence. This explanation comes mostly from the commentary to the Dra Thal-gyur tantra. Elio Guarisco did a great job identifying all the medicinal plants and other substances in a very long appendix.
Then we have attachment to dreams, although it is mostly dealing with what In the modern tradition of tantras is called the six yogas or six dharmas. The first, most important one, tummo, is like a base. Then there is the practice of dreams, the illusory body, clear light, then transference of consciousness, and bardo. All these teachings come from the dzogrim or completion stage of the Anuttaratantra. This is because the dzogrim stage is mostly dealing with consciousness or nature of mind and how it is related to the vajra body of the channels, chakras and energies. All these practices have the purpose of integrating the aspect of the mandala and the deity, which we apply in the creation stage or kyerim, at a level not just of our mind, but also our energy and body. There are different tantras; one tantra may be more specific, or deal with one aspect such as tummo, while another tantra will deal with the bardo, and so on. This is how these six yogas originated.
There are some very interesting explanations about these six practices. For example, regarding dream practice, which Rinpoche only taught at the beginning of the Dzogchen community, you will find many clear explanations of all the different stages. Then there is a really very special explanation by Longchenpa of what we call the clear light or natural light. These are really very important teachings.
We said that the second samten has three classifications. The first involves visualization and includes these six practices, plus chülen and tummo. Then we have another kind of samten of those who are proceeding on the bhumis or levels of realization. In the sutra teaching, such as Mahayana sutra, we speak about the five paths and ten bhumis. This is the way a practitioner works with merit and wisdom from the beginning. First of all there is the path of accumulation, then the path of connection, and a third path called the path of vision, or seeing. It means that now a practitioner has real recognition of the essence of emptiness or shunyata. That corresponds to the first bhumi, or first level of realization.
There are ten different stages or bhumis. Why do we have these different levels of realization? Because we have two kinds of obstacles: one is called the obstacle of emotions, and the other the obstacle of knowledge. Emotions means that after a short time, a practitioner should be more or less free from all these negative or disturbing emotions. One may ask, If a practitioner becomes free from all emotions would not that be all, with nothing more to do? However, there is a lot more to do when we talk about reaching ultimate realization, because there are still all the obstacles related to our grasping mind which creates concepts. And they are all obstacles that arise during a session of contemplation.
In order to show how these five paths and ten bhumis correspond to the Dzogchen teaching, there is a chapter that explains the four yogas or four contemplations which are used in the Dzogchen semde teaching, although the names are a little different. The first we call the path of accumulation, but here it is called the yoga of the world. Then we have three levels: small, medium and great. The second one corresponds to this path of seeing that we explained, while the third yoga corresponds to the path of meditation or cultivation. The fourth one corresponds to the yoga or path of no more training, no more meditation, gommed, beyond meditation. In Mahamudra these titles are usually a little different from the Dzogchen semde.
To recapitulate, In the Dzogchen upadesha, we have three aspects of meditation: semdzin for devas and human beings, samten for bodhisattvas, and samten that is divided into three stages. These are natural samten, samten involving methods of visualization, channels and pranas, and so on, and samten dealing with the four contemplations for progressing on the path and the bhumis. In the Dzogchen tantras the third meditation is called the Tezhin Shegpai Gongpa, where Tezhin means tathagata, or Buddha, finding oneself in one’s real nature. Tezhin means real nature, abiding in that nature. Gongpa means the real state of consciousness, the ultimate nature of consciousness. In order to apply that, we have these instructions on tregchöd. In this book, tregchöd is presented according to the three statements of Garab Dorje.
The first statement or testament of Garab Dorje refers to introducing the real state of the individual. It means that the teacher uses some methods to try to find a way so that the student can have experience of that state. We should understand this first statement in two ways: the direct introduction from the teacher to the student, and the direct discovery on the part of the student. Then it is called direct introduction. Otherwise in the Dzogchen community we always have questions about direct introduction, direct transmission and people get confused. Direct introduction means that you receive the transmission and discover that state, your real nature, and this means that direct introduction has been fulfilled. It is not the same as transmission, which is a general name. You can receive oral transmission, symbolic transmission, direct transmission, but direct introduction has to do with direct transmission, mostly.
This chapter describes many ways of direct introduction that the teacher can use and you will be surprised how many methods are described in this original text, especially from Longchenpa’s instructions. Rinpoche also taught many of them because he started to teach Dzogchen upadesha from the beginning in 1976, 1977, up to the beginning of 1978. After that he started to teach semde, around 1979, and then in 1981, he taught longde for the first time. This is not something uncommon in Dzogchen teaching because we say that it is very difficult to judge the capacity of the student. Hence, it is better to introduce the student at the top from the beginning. If he or she has that capacity, then it’s good and they don’t waste a lot of time with preliminary practices. If the student is not able, they go down to the semde, the four contemplations, and start with fixation and do shine practice.
In general, this is work that a student should do by him or herself. But at that time, when we started the Dzogchen community, Rinpoche recognized that something was not going in the right way for practitioners. Usually there are two ways a teacher can understand the condition of the student. One is what kind of questions they ask, because from the questions you can understand their level of understanding. But most importantly, the teacher can understand by the conduct or behavior of that person. At one point, Rinpoche wrote that famous book, “The Mirror, Advice on Presence and Awareness”. He said that many young practitioners – because we were mostly young – had understood that self-liberation meant getting rid of everything, getting free of everything because we are all tied with rules and limitations, and the Dzogchen teaching teaches self-liberation, to be completely free of everything. Then many practitioners understood that they could do anything, like enjoying many things which are not in the real sense of the teaching, like drugs, alcohol, or sexual misconduct, whatever. When we say freedom, liberation, in the Dzogchen teaching it means freedom from our dualistic mind, from our conceptual mind, then we can really be free. It is not freedom from something outside that is creating some limitations for us.
So, saying this, from the beginning we had all these methods of direct introduction that Rinpoche taught in the first years of the Dzogchen community. He taught longde for more or less one year in 1981. Then in 1982 he started to teach Dzogchen upadesha again, in Sardinia in December and January, 1981 and 82. There was also a Dzogchen upadesha retreat for the first time at Merigar in the summer of ’82. You can find some explanations in transcriptions [from those retreats] and also in this text in Longchenpa’s explanations. Rinpoche also used some of these methods in informal situations with practitioners. I discovered some of these by studying these texts. So you can read these different explanations and apply whatever is suitable.
The second statement of Garab Dorje means finding the real state of knowledge beyond doubt. Here we mostly have Longchenpa’s explanation about how to distinguish between meditation and contemplation. In general, we say we are meditating with our mind and have an object of meditation. When we use that method, it is not the same as when we say “contemplation” in the Dzogchen teaching. Here, there is an explanation from a tantra from the Six Spaces of Samantabhadra that says sometimes we may have the idea that we are in the real state of contemplation, but actually it is not. You remember that we explained that there is a natural, samten, a natural meditation state that is related to the mind. It means that we have that kind of experience, like the calm state, and we can mistake it for the state of contemplation. In this tantra, it says that we should be careful not to mistake one with the other, otherwise there will be problems.
Then with the third testament of Garab Dorje, we have to find certainty or confidence in self-liberation. In general, self-liberation is one type of liberation, but there are explanations of three, four, or five kinds, as we have in this book. This is only because it may be taking the view from a different angle. Generally we mostly have three kinds: cherdrol, rangdrol and shardrol. Cherdrol means direct or stark liberation and is like a first stage in which there is a kind of subtle intention with our mind. We directly observe a thought or an object of the senses in a sharp way, and then all concepts dissolve. The other types of self-liberation arise simultaneously and develop and one becomes more familiar with that capacity. There are many examples of these five types that you can read about in the book.
Then finally we have the instructions on the four chogzhags. Chogzhag and rangdrol are a little different. Rangdrol or self-liberation is a kind of condition of our mind in which it is free from concepts and we are abiding in the state of rigpa. It is not something we can do or apply. When we say chogzhag it is something that comes from the subject and how we relate to our nature of mind, our thoughts, and outer phenomena. Chogzhag means to leave everything as it is, without modifying, without changing anything. At the ordinary level, if we try to apply the chogzhags, and leave everything as it is, what happens? We have so many thoughts and we are distracted, so that cannot be chogzhag. When we have the basis of instant presence, we are in that state and do not modify it but leave everything as it is, then we apply the chogzhags in that moment.
This explanation comes mostly from this longsal root terma teaching and is also integrated with Longchenpa’s explanation. So this is the meditation part.
Then for conduct, there is the explanation from Longchenpa’s Precious Ship which explains the principle of self-liberation of the emotions and other aspects. When we talk about the fruit or result, first of all, we should understand what the fruit or result means in the Dzogchen teaching, how we can apply it on the path, and what kind of realization we can have. According to one’s capacity, we generally have three kinds of results. The lowest result means that at least we can have a good connection for the next life. We will be reborn in a place where we can continue to receive Dzogchen teachings and to practice. It means that when we are in the bardo of existence, we have not been able to recognize the natural light, or luminous clarity in this dharmakaya state of the moment of death. After that comes the stage when we are in the bardo of the dharmata, when our consciousness wakes up, without the workings of our mind. That is called the dharmata and is related to this primordial potentiality, this lhundrub aspect of sound, light and rays related to the possibility of this sambhogakaya realization. Then we continue in this third bardo of existence. That moment we can have this recollection.
Usually they say six recollections: we remember the teacher, we remember that we were practitioners, what teachings we received, how we tried to apply them and so on. Then through that, we connect with a good rebirth in the future. Also, with the help of teachers or practitioners who are trying to communicate with us, we can have that possibility. Then we are reborn in samsara again. Then when we are sixteen or seventeen years old, we have a connection with the teaching somehow, and then we start practicing again according to where we ended our previous life and we continue from that. This is why we have so many different kinds of practitioners, some higher capacities, some lower, some medium. This is, in general, our path, also for our Dzogchen Community.
So this is some information about this book, but we also have many other texts that Rinpoche wrote that have not been published. For example, we still have some important commentaries from the longsal. We have important public books that Rinpoche wrote, like this Dunhuang document of Buddhagupta’s Small Collection. There are other instructions that Rinpoche wrote on this, such as tsalung explanations. We have many other texts that Rinpoche didn’t write but he taught, such as Chanchub Dorje’s teachings or termas, which are very important.
Finally we have the two most precious works which are, first of all, the auto-biography that Rinpoche wrote and of which we have two kinds. One is in verse and is called the Travels of the Tibetan Acharya Around the World. It is like a dialogue between the thought or consciousness addressing the real nature of Chögyal Namkhai Norbu, and year by year there are explanations of what he did. Up until 1975-6 it contains many interesting stories. Then it continues, but becomes more like a list of teachings that he gave and dharma activities because then he had become an important master.
Then there is another text which is called “Tütrin,” which notes activities year by year. So somehow we should combine the two to make a complete biography. And also there are many stories that the Rinpoche told during the teachings, during private conversations that are not included in these Tibetan books. So it would also be nice to collect all these to publish in a book.
But at the top of the tops, in the highest of the heavens, there is a famous book of dreams, which is almost 2,000 pages in Tibetan. I don’t know what to do, but one day I should translate it. When Rinpoche gave it to me the first time in 2000, he wrote, “I am giving this to you because you are my translator, which means not because you are something special, but because one day you will need to translate it”. This book contains all his dreams related to the longsal teachings, not only with texts, but also dreams related to the longsal. Many of these are already included in the ten volumes of longsal that we have published but these are only about 10 or 20 percent, not all of them. There are many other dreams.
Therefore it is very important that all those who have the financial possibility contribute to these Ka-ter activities, because if we need to work, then we also need to live and to have that possibility. So if you can, please contribute to the Ka-ter proejct. I am committed as long as I have good health to complete all these works of translation. But of course, we are all in the middle of secondary courses, so there’s no guarantee of anything. However, we try to do our best, as Rinpoche always used to say. So thank you. That is all.
Transcription and editing by Liz Granger
Final editing Adriano Clemente